Purpose: Using population specific brain atlas might improve the accuracy of structural atrophy detection in neurodegenerative disease. Objective: This study aimed to test the hypothesis that the statistical Chinese brain template (sCBT) would be more effective to detect grey matter (GM) changes in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) in Chinese populations. Materials and Methods: Fifty patients with AD and 50 sex- and age-matched healthy controls (HCs) were included in this study. Chinese2020, a typical sCBT, and MNI152, a typical Caucasian template were employed for spatial normalization respectively. The GM volume alterations in patients with AD were examined by using voxel-based morphometry (VBM) with education level and total intracranial volume (TIV) as nuisance variables. The GM proportions of the identified brain areas with group difference were compared. Results: By using Chinese2020 and MNI152, significant GM atrophies in patients with AD were commonly detected in the bilateral medial template lobe (MTL), lateral temporal lobe, inferior/medial frontal cortex, as well as left thalamus. Particularly, higher GM percentages of detected regions and stronger statistical powers were acquired to spatially normalize the Chinese brain to Chinese2020 than to MNI152. Conclusion: These findings indicated that the sCBT should be used in neuroimaging studies based on Chinese populations, which may achieve fewer deformations during spatial normalization, more GM proportions and stronger statistical powers in identified clusters, and thus higher accuracy in activation detection.